The device, built from wood, wire, and grains of corn, is also known as the “Aztecan computer”. Anatolia is a peninsula located in the Middle East, occupied today by the Asian part of Turkey. In the Bible, Baal is one of the false gods, to which the Hebrews ran to when they fell away from their adoration for Yahweh. 509 BC Pygmalion rose to the throne to the age of eleven, under the regency of the great priest Melkart who was married to Dido, sister of the king who had to escape to Africa when she attempted to avenge the death of her husband. Following the customs of the time, historians later marked that year as the start of the Muslim calendar. 3500 BC History, map and timeline of the Middle East 3500 BCE, ... and already ancient – civilizations, with a complex commercial life, bureaucracies, ... whilst in the Mediterranean land a number of brilliant city-state civilizations, most notably the Greeks, now flourish. Ancient Egypt ca. 11th and 12th centuries The king Attila the Hun marched against Rome. The Avars were allied with the Persians and laid siege against Constantinople but were forced to withdraw due to a strong resistance from the inhabitants. They felt great passion for horses and they had a strong reputation as riders; as such, they served in the Carthaginian armies. The Mongols were a nomadic tribe from the north. 1900 BC T2 - From Prehistory to 640 CE. 1800 BC – 1700 BC 1500-500 BC: Indian kingdom age ca. Full sedentarization begins. They successfully reunified China after the period of the three kingdoms. 1202 AD – 1261 AD Amongst them is Monte Negro and Huamelulpan. The population became 50 million. With the expansion from the invaders, various cities were founded on the southern coast of Canaan: Gaza, Asdod, Ecrón, Ascalón and Gat. 25th century – 12 century BC The information codified in the documents revealed that they had already inhabited a small island since 1274 AD. They culminated the conquest of Persia (modern day Iran). The Arabs that inhabited the Arabic Peninsula didn’t form a nation or a state. 1279 AD Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero were especially despotic, they were also driven by excessive madness that put to the test the strength of the consolidated system from Octavius’s wise management. The Tayronans, descendants of the Chibchans, reached a level of development envied by other Colombian cultures. Hannibal manages to cross the Alps to fight the Romans. Hammurabi broke down and conquered the Assyrians that would go on to form part of the Babylonian empire. This seminar-style class will explore the political, economic, social, and cultural achievements of the civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean world from their origins through the fall of Rome. In an expedition commanded by Cecilio Metelo, Crete was added to the Roman empire. The city of Constantinople, capital of the late Roman and Byzantine Empire’s, was one of the last great ancient cities. 900 BC – 500 BC This is the date that most of the sculptures and architectural elements that characterize the Olmec culture were made. 1000 BC 380 AD 1425 BC – 1110 BC The birth of Egyptian civilization is usually placed at ca. It refers to the timeframe of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. After his death, Octavius was consecrated as a son of Divus (divine) Julius Cesar, which would turn him, in death, into a god. The historical territory of the Mixtecans is the area known today as Mixteca, divided between the Mexican states of Puebla, Oaxaca, and Guerrero. }); 235 AD – 285 AD The timeline above show the four earliest places where civilization began. 200 BC Groups of Assyrian merchants formed colonies in Anatolia (modern center of Turkey) and there they established a prosperous metal and textile trade. The format is the era or dates in the far left column (column #1), followed by a summary of the period called the Overview which may be further divided by region horizontally (column #2), followed by the main geographic area ( the Mediterranean, what we call the Middle East today, but in the context of ancient history is usually called the Ancient Near East (A.N.E. 681 AD It was a simple system that permitted the diffusion of knowledge and culture. For this reason, it is very common to find traces and evidence of this culture throughout the Mexican territory. The Abbasids, descendants of Abbas, uncle of Muhammad, were established with the power of the Caliphate and moved the capital from Damascus (Syria) to Baghdad (Iraq). Copan was the scientific center of the Mayan world, where astronomy was perfected to the point of being able to determine the length of the tropical year, create tablets of eclipses, and create a formula to adjust the calendar, even more exact than is used today. Including Troy, The Hittites, The Kingdoms of Phrygia, Lydia, the Byzantine empire, and the Ottoman empire; also, Greek people, Turks, Seleucids, Syrians, and a small part of Rome have occupied this region. They formed diverse tribes that were dispersed and independent (some were nomadic and others were sedentary) and they were continually fighting with each other. I would agree with what others have said about the "Ascent of Man" picture being misleading (for a lot of reasons). Under the reign of Emperor Tiberius III, the Byzantine Empire let go of Africa, which he considered a lost province. It has been the home of various, powerful civilizations and the location in which many battles between them took place throughout history. The aftermath of the Peloponnesian war a. very messy, with battles between Greek cities, especially Sparta, and Persians who sometimes back Greek cities against other Greek cities. Third Intermediate Period: 2 Libyan dynasties were established that divided Egypt. The tribal rivalry, the assimilation of conquered cultures, the ancient military model, the development of agriculture, the absence of an effective military, and the use of gunpowder were some of the most important factors in the decay of the Mongolian empire. 782 AD The Roman Emperor, Constantine I, selected Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman empire (Greek city, capital of Thrace, located at the entrance of the Bosphorus Strait, part of modern day Istanbul, and who has occupied a prominent location in history since its establishment). 504 BC One of the great mathematical contributions, above all from the Mexicans, was the invention of the Nepohualtzintzin which is an abacus used for carrying out arithmetic operations quickly. 826 AD – 961 AD They are considered to be the mother culture of Mesoamerican civilization. Flavio Theodosius declared Catholic Christianity as the only legitimate imperial religion imperial, ending the traditional Roman religion with the support of the State. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The Moche culture declined rapidly with the arrival of the Chimu culture. Jul 11, 2013 - Explore Amy Carlotta's board "Timeline Project" on Pinterest. This was the period in which the Incan Civilization reached its highest level of organization and greatest stretch of territory, known as Tahuantinsuyo (The four joined regions), covering almost 2 million square kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and the Amazon jungle and from the vicinity of San Juan de Pasto (Colombia) in the north to the Rio Maule (Central Chile) in the south. Mesoamerica is the region of the American continent that includes the southern half of Mexico, the Guatemalan territories, El Salvador, and Belize, as well as Western Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. They were dedicated to cattle-raising but with time they adopted agriculture. The secular differences between the Greek Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church lead to their definitive separation. Mongke Khan, the fourth Great Khan, was responsible for the Mongolian invasion of Russia and Eastern Europe. 600 BC The first societies appeared with monumental architecture. History of Mesopotamia, the region in southwestern Asia where the world’s earliest civilization developed. Rome also saw the rise and fall of some of the greatest emperors in human civilization, like Julius Caesar, Trajan and Augustus. Herod, Roman vassal king, governs the Land of Israel. The invasions provoked the paralysis of trade and industry, the destruction of the Western Roman Empire, that is to say, the end of an established, advanced civilization, and also the beginning of a new European Era, the Middle Ages. 79 AD – 81 AD 555 BC – 529 BC This is the region where the first Neolithic Revolution arose (8th century BC) and later, the Urban Revolution (4th Century BC). To this day, no one knows what happened between them, though it is probable that Attila withdrew his troops due to the hunger and sickness that his military was suffering through and that would impede his ability to maintain a siege against Rome. Under this empire, was a period of peace and prosperity that favored the development of the Indian culture from the point of view of the artists, writers, and scientists. The first census in the world is attributed to him. 1813 BC – 1780 BC Thus, the peninsula is called Asia Minor. 200 BC – 750 AD READ MORE: Battle of Yarmouk READ MORE: The Development of Constantinople READ MORE: The Second Punic War Through war an… 4th century BC – 2nd century AD Its influence has been felt throughout centuries of history and many countries still have ample evidence in the form of monuments and buildings which date back to that period. Also, it's weird to me to have the "African" civilizations so far away from the Egyptian civilization. The Carthaginian armada was also defeated. Alexander the Great was the Emperor. Sparta is the prominent city-state at first, and then Thebes 2. After this emperor was defeated by a barbarian leader named Odoacro, the Western Roman Empire disappeared and gave way to the middle ages. Only the archeological site of Knossos is reconstructed to show a Mycenaean who invaded Crete and took power. Under the rule of the Latin Empire, Crete is given to Venice. 1300 BC A cultural hearth is a place where a culture first developed. The Parthenon was constructed during this period. The Second Latin War occurred a century and a half after the first. 600 BC – 889 AD The frontier between both was in modern-day Cairo, south of the Nile Delta. 3000 BC, when all of ancient Egypt was united as a single state. 28th of January, 814 AD During the Pre-Dynastic period, the small settlements prospered along the Nile River. This is usually symbolized by the closing of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I, as well as the prohibition of all religions other than Christianity. The Ancient Greeks are considered a seminal culture that served as the basis for western civilization. The major events in ancient history listed in the table below are those happenings in the world that led to or gravely impacted the rise and decline of the great Mediterranean civilizations of Greece and Rome. The birth of Hannibal Barca, known as Hannibal, was considered by many as one of the greatest military strategists in history. (Zoroastrianism). Minoan Postpalatial: Construction of the legendary palace of the mythological king Idomeneo. 1550 BC – 1500 BC 705 701 BC The Mayans were the first civilization of Mesoamerica and of many other nations that had zero has a mathematical concept. They were alone with the neighboring tribes and ones even closer. Centered between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the region in ancient times was home to several civilizations, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians. 1146 BC Thrace (Modern-day Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey) and India were annexed. 2600 BC – 2500 BC They made delicate carvings into jade, works with bronze and woven silk. The eruption of the Xitle south of the valley quickened the fall of Cuicuilco and encouraged population growth and the expansion of political and economic power in Teotihuacan. Ancient Civilization Timeline: The 16 Oldest Cultures Acces PDF Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations From Prehistory Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations From Prehistory Kobo Reading App: This is another nice e-reader app that's available for Windows Phone, BlackBerry, Android, iPhone, iPad, and Windows and Mac computers. 480 BC Babylonia conquers Judea. 1700 BC – 1100 BC The artists created sculptures in stretched positions with a dreamlike “archaic smile”. The birth of Egyptian civilization is usually placed at ca. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. The Mongol empire was the most extensive in history. In the end, they faced invasions from the People of the Sea, people from the Aegean Sea and Libya. There is evidence of pastoral life and cultivation of grain in the Eastern Sahara. The Fourth Crusade, which began with the retaking of the Holy Land, changed course and ended with the conquest of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, called “Romaniae Empire” (in Latin). Ancient Kingdom. Only the death of the ruler would cause the Mongolian army to withdraw. The Numidians were one of the first natives that traded with the Carthaginian colonies. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world. The Ancient Mediterranean Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations student spotlight | Braden Perryman The Sea Peoples \u0026 The Late Bronze Age Collapse // Ancient History Documentary (1200-1150 BC) Ancient Western Civilizations Timeline 3500BC-476AD Was There An Advanced Civilization This migration is called the Hegira. 1792 BC The Phoenicians were the inventors of the alphabet. They were nomads, living in tents, bringing herds of goats and sheep, utilizing donkeys, mules, and camels as their luggage carriers. Domestication of corn, probably from the teosinte. Han Dynasty. Period: 753 B.C. In the year 30 BC Alexander Octavio came around, making Egypt a Roman province. Groups of farmers arrived bringing with them ceramic traditions. He changed Babylonia into a center of trade in the Middle East. 540 BC The Vandals (German people) conquered Carthage. 494 BC Timeline - Ancient Civilization (4000 BC - 500 BC) 20 terms. A look at Ancient Civilizations of the Mycenaeans and Phoenicians. 4000 BC The Persian empire conquered the entire area. } There is very little archaeological evidence. Perseus won and offered the Romans a peace treaty that was rejected. Tarasco comes from the word tarascue (my son-in-law or my father-in-law), used by the indigenous people to refer to the first Spaniards. Modern day Iraq, part of Iran, part of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the Palestinian Territories, Jordan, Arabia, and Egypt lie in the Middle East. 1760 BC 60 BC – 53 BC 1100 BC – 750 BC 64The Egyptians are freed from the Persians with the conquests of Alexander the Great. 1235 AD No written texts survived from this era. It developed on an island on the border of Tabasco and Veracruz. The Moche or Mochican culture developed, a culture of Ancient Peru. 146 BC At the end of the Severan dynasty, the third anarchy began and from this, several emperors come to power thanks to having risen from military command by merits without necessarily being from a noble family. The establishment of the tetrarchy (Shared power between four tetrarchs). Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the fertile Crescent. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Egypt, Greece, and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean 3rd edition by Freeman, Charles (2014) Paperback on The timeline above show the four earliest places where civilization began. Jerusalem becomes the capital of the reign of David. Established by Genghis Khan, the empire came to occupy and maximum extension of some 33 million square kilometers and more than 100 million inhabitants, including some of the most advanced and populated nations of the time, like China, Iraq, Iran, and countries of Central Asia and Asia Minor. The Tarascan Culture is a Precolombian culture from Mexico that flourished mainly in the eastern region of the state of Michoacan. The Hebrews were an ancient Semite people from the Middle East and they were ancestors of the Israelites and the original Jews of Mesopotamia. They get their name from the village of Mycenae in Peloponnese. 12th Century – 10th Century BC King David (1004 – 965 BC) changed Israel into an important power in the region through his successful military expeditions, seeing to the final defeat of the Philistines. Hence the end of Eastern Phoenicia. The people that were dominated and that accepted the new religion were known as “Muslims”. He protected the cultures and restored the temples in the newly acquired cities. The first emperor of this new era is Maximinus the Thracian, son of peasants and from modern-day Bulgaria. However, throughout ancient Greek civilization art underwent several distinct changes in … Eastern Phoenicia established commercial routes and colonies in the Mediterranean. Invasion by the Hittites from Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). Assyria became an empire. Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, drafted the first collection of laws. New Kingdom: In the outward expansion arrived at the Euphrates (Asia) as well as to Nubia (Africa). 395 AD This is the end of the Persian empire. With the arrival of Phillip II they achieved great success. 6000 BC The small island was overgrown with tulares, reeds, and rich aquatic diversity that allowed for subsistence as well as strategic military positions, even then, their first years would still be dangerous. The Canaanite people of the coast start to become known as Phoenicians. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of Mars, the god of war. Ancient history includes the recorded Greek history beginning in about 776 BC (First Olympiad). Large, highly-populated cities appear with a clear specialization in the use of space and social differentiation. The Medes controlled the East-West trade, but they also were rich in agricultural production. Despite that the borders of the Medes were never perfectly fixed, their territory corresponded to modern-day North East Iran. At the height of its power, the Roman Empire ruled over a huge chunk of land, and all the present-day Mediterranean countries were part of ancient Rome. Jerusalem and the First Temple are destroyed, the majority of the Jews are exiled to Babylonia. In this period, the first Chinese calendar was produced. The Hittites inhabited the region of Anatolia Pre-Turkey. 264 BC – 241 BC Uaxactun has the oldest Mayan temple ever found in the region and it is the first place were the existence of the false tomb was observed. Crete is an island situated in the Aegean Sea. Hence the end of Western Phoenicia. 1099 AD – 1291 AD Year of the Elephant, Muhammed is born in Mecca. Ancient Civ 3 Civilizations. Late Period: With two periods of Persian rule, Egypt became a Satrap (protector of the land/country). 3500-550 BC: Per1: inter-Persian: Per2: Egyptian civilization ca. The economy was based in the cultivation of wheat, vines, olives, and livestock. Wednesday November 15, 2017 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations Greece in the 4th and 3rd centuries; Alexander the Great & Hellenism 1. This is the era that the circular pyramid of Cuicuilco, the central square of Monte Alban, and the pyramid of the moon in Teotihuacan are estimated to have been built. These factors were what largely contributed to the success and the strength of the city. Archaic Era: In the beginning, the people were illiterate. The Persians belonged to Iranian groups that had been established centuries before in the plateau of Iran. Ancient Africa provided the world with some of the greatest empires and civilizations in history. All were fiercely independent, rival cities and, unlike the neighboring inland states, the Phoenicians represented a confederation of maritime traders rather than a defined country. Charlemagne conquered the Lombards. 1550 BC – 1070 BC In general, the Moche culture had great ease in the coastal area to the north of Peru, in this area they developed in impressive form, constructing great temples that became a great part of their legacy. Charlemagne undertook a long war in which he defeated and conquered the Saxons and incorporated their territories into the French Empire. 2500-1500 BC: Vedic age ca. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The first cities and empires formed here. Carthage falls. 697-708 1150 BC Their major cities were Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arwad. Rulers & Politics The existence of written documents from long ago has allowed the development in China of precise historiographical tradition that offers a continuous narration from the first dynasties to the contemporary age. They were famed in Classical Greece and Rome as ‘traders in purple’, referring to their monopoly on the precious purpl… Christmas day, Pope Leon III coronated Charlemagne as emperor over the Roman Empire. Tikal shows great Teotihuacan influence. 4000 BC 641 AD The Roman Senate, controlled by Octavius, declared that Mark Antony was not useful for the second triumvirate and declared war with Cleopatra. 600 AD The use of money was strengthened while bartering decreased in use. Chemical analysis of the dated tree-ring sequence identifies a chemical change in their growth environment around 1560 BC, which while requiring further substantiation, may be evidence of the Thera eruption. Organized agriculture appears along with the construction of great cities. They started to use currency. Hannibal the Great rises to the throne. 600 BC Israel is won over by the Assyrians. 1206 AD 221-206 BC In this period, the first Chinese calendar was produced. 1st Century – 9th Century A 260-day calendar is used as a civil calendar. 2000 BC – 1500 BC Late Preclassic Period: Around Lake Texcoco are several villages that will become great cities, like Tlatilco and Cuicuilco. In the 6th century, the sedentary tribes disappeared as independent entities before the supremacy and pressure of the Persians. Fundraiser: Mesopotamia Teaching Materials. The oldest beginnings of the Olmecans. 1250 AD 31 terms. Roman Greece: Since the Roman conquest until the establishment of the city of Byzantium (renamed Constantinople in 330 AD), modern-day Istanbul. 1270 The most important city was found on the banks of the Tigris river, next to the temple of their first god Assur; the city was also called Assur or El-Assur and the country took the same name, Assyria. The territory succumbed to Rome. They invaded Xochimilco. The translation of the Linear B tablets shows that the improperly called Mycenaeans are really Greeks. B.C.E. Another important road united the capitals of Persis, Persepolis, and Pasargadae. Much of western civilization, especially Europe and the Mediterranean has its foundations in the Roman Empire and then before that, Greek civilization, and the Roman Empire is really up there alongside the Persian Empire as one of the really great civilizations or empires, and when I say great, you should take that with a grain of salt. In this era, the first writing systems were developed along with the base-20 numerical system of the Olmecs. Agriculture, industry, and trade flourished. Heraclius took the title of King of Kings and abandoned the imperial title of Augustus, whose reforms (above all, the reorganization of the army and the adoption of Greek as the official language), the empire acquired a character starkly different from the old Roman Empire. The Boturini Codex lays down the official route made by the Mexicans, which included sites of Hidalgo and Mexico that were successively expelled. 1000 BC • Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations Timeline (10000 BC to 700 AD) 1200 AD – 1510 AD Muhammad started to preach a new, monotheistic religion: Islam. The new position of Consul was created, assigned explicitly to two senators. The first god of the Phoenicians was Astarte, the goddess of fertility. It also ensured a good sequence of leaders until Marcus Aurelius broke the rule, designating his son, Comodo, a decision that would be disastrous. This civilization flourished in the areas of present-day Ecuador, Peru, and Chile and had its administrative, military, and political center at Cusc… 1500 BC The senate granted the title of Emperor Caesar Augustus, which made him commander of all the armies. 1350 BC – 1100 BC Vespasian: highlights of his reign include financial reforms that he promoted After the fall of the Julio-Claudia Dynasty, his successful campaign in Judea and his ambitious construction projects like the Flavian Amphitheater, known popularly as the Roman Colosseum were quite necessary. 425 338 BC 1204 AD Unit 3 Ancient Civ. 614 BC They were nomads with livestock that spoke some sort of Indo-Iranian language and during the first millennium they were divided into various small tribes. 29 BC This easy-to-use and interactive Timeline helps you to navigate the various cities, monuments, peoples and cultures of the ancient Near East and Mediterranean worlds, with hundreds of entries to expand and revise your knowledge. 632 1500 BC – 1425 BC 490 BC 264 BC – 146 BC Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. 218 BC 332 BC – 30 BC One of their legacies is from mathematics where they developed a decimal system and a modern number system. The Second Punic War begins. 1800 BC – 1550 BC Philosophy & Religion Muhammed moved towards Mecca with 10,000 men and the battle was won without a single drop of blood. Under mandate from Genghis Khan, all citizens (always, even when they were nomads) and the religious people were considered equal by the Mongolian law, meanwhile the overweight population and the Chinese especially were discriminated against. 622 AD 171 BC – 168 BC As well as Crete, other islands of the Aegean Sea (Cyclades and Rhodes) and places in Asia Minor show Mycenaean deposits. 1063 AD – 1115 AD Carthage was put in charge of the supremacy of the Phoenician world. Written law was adopted. Palaces were reconstructed and a great period of growth begins in the civilization. In Pakistan, a civilization developed in the Indus Valley. The followers of Islam are called Muslims (All of those who accept the will of a god). Their economy transformed from agricultural to a higher-level of organization because of trade with foreign countries. The Great Khan Ogodei entered a conflict with the Song Dynasty. Tres Zapotes. Y1 - 2011. The Sui Dynasty brought the reunification of the south and the north, The Grand Canal was constructed and extended the Great Wall of China. Charlemagne died in Aachen. Numidia was constituted after the Second Punic War. Cyrus the Great conquered the Medes, defeated Babylonia, Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor. The largest Greek island and the fifth in size in the Mediterranean. This was in practice since 509 BC when the monarchy was put to an end with the expulsion of the last king, Lucio Tarquino the arrogant, until 27 AD, the date in which Rome became an empire. Minoan Neopalatial or New Palace Period: New cities were founded and new, more majestic palaces were constructed on the ruins of the old ones. Charlemagne reestablished the balance in power between emperor and the pope. 1500 BC – 1200 AD Crete came to be part of the Greek world. The invasion of the Dorians, who utilized iron. The terms “Hebrew” and “Israelite” often describe the same people. These tribes didn’t recognize the power that they would’ve had together. The kings of Gupta established an effective administrative system and a strong central power allowing local autonomy in times of peace. 3000-550 BC. Rome also saw the rise and fall of some of the greatest emperors in human civilization, like Julius Caesar, Trajan and Augustus. This was the year 0 in the Roman calendar. TY - BOOK. Servio Tulio is the sixth king of Rome. Zhou Dynasty. Assyria was a country of antiquity situated in Southeastern Asia in ancient Mesopotamia, in the valley of the Tigris river whose limits were: the northern Armenian mountains, the Chaldeans (Babylonians) to the south, and to the east, the center, and the west, Mesopotamia. 655 AD Aegean civilizations, the Stone and Bronze Age civilizations that arose and flourished in the area of the Aegean Sea in the periods, respectively, about 7000–3000 bc and about 3000–1000 bc. The Mexican mythology, being very diverse but practically made under the mandate of Tlacelel, originated in Chicomoztoc (nahuatl: Chicome-oztotli-co, “Place of the seven caves”), a site related to Aztlan, from where the word Aztec is derived. Search through the entire ancient history timeline. 1200 BC Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Charlemagne was the battle and ordered the slaughter of thousands of pagan Saxon prisoners. 395 AD From around the 6th century BC The Romans ruled over the biggest chunk of land in that era – all the present day counties surrounding the modern day Mediterranean sea were a part of ancient Rome. The peace between Persia and Byzantium forced the Persians to return conquered territories. They are Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, and Yucatan; and in Central America, in the modern-day territories of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador. Rome was equipped with a new system of government designed to replace the leadership of the kings. The Greeks emerged in the course of the 2nd millennium BCE through the superimposition of a branch of the Indo-Europeans on the population of the Mediterranean region during the great migrations of nations that started in the region of the lower Danube. The origin of the city of Rome can be placed especially close to Palatine Hill, next to the Tiber river, in a point in which a natural ford permitted crossing. Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in Canaan which covered most of the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent.Several major Phoenician cities were built on the coastline of the Mediterranean. Aegean world arrival of Phillip II they achieved Great success, who fought with the base-20 numerical system government. Been the home of various peoples from Asia Minor societies appeared with monumental architecture the throne of Babylonia North... Rule in the territory today comprised of 5 states to the southeast of Mexico 1318 BC – 1200 groups! Dynasties were established that divided Egypt and fall of the Nile River the Peloponnesian and!: weights and measurements as well as a religious leader their interests in the of! Roman vassal king, governs the Land of Canaan and Israelites afterwards even closer united the to... 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