View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia [5], The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[43][44]. About two kilometers (1.2 miles) from the city is the vacation colony of Chayka (Seagull). To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… [26] In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great. It is the center of Russian brandy production. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. The Jewish population numbered 2,200 in 1897 (15% of total population) and 3,500 in 1903. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit. Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? In 2002, there were 2,000 Jews with an active synagogue and community center. Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. [14] The Darband fortress was certainly the most prominent Sasanian defensive construction in the Caucasus and could have been erected only by an extremely powerful central government. [46] In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”. Russian officials acknowledge that grinding poverty in places like … A traditionally and historically Iranian city,[21] the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. And a mosque again. A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. The immense wall, with a height of up to twenty meters and a thickness of about 10 feet (3 meters), stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, thirty north-looking towers stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, effectively blocking the passage across the Caucasus. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … Population: 119,200 (2010 Census);[3] 101,031 (2002 Census);[9] 78,371 (1989 Census).[10]. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. The abode of the Parthians was there. Dagestan was always divided into numerous historical and geographical areas: Avaria, Agul, Akusha-Dargo, Andia, Auch, Dido, Kaitag, Kumykia, Lakia, Lekiya, Salataviya, Rutulia, Tabasaran and others. [1], From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. 'Gate of Gates')[17] simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب‎, lit. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. 'Barred gate', from dar “gate” + band “bar,” lit., “barred gate”[13]), referring to the adjacent pass. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. Derbent wall‎ (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.[22]. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. [14] In the 5th century Derbent also functioned as a border fortress and the seat of a Sassanid marzban. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. A mosque. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twi… Think Again, Moscow Says, People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan, Derbent - Russia's oldest city: 5,000 and counting. The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. They killed 1 person and injured 12. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. The room is large with equipped with new furniture. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia, or with the Pass of Dariel, a gorge forming a pass between Russia and Georgia with the Caspian Sea to the east. This is a must-visit for understanding the In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab),[29] following their invasion of Persia. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. [18] A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".[19][20]. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. There was also a second Armenian church, and two Armenian schools which served the Armenian community, which numbered about 3,000 in the census of 1913. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند‎, lit. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Hotels near Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala; Hotels near Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent; Hotels near Derbent Dzhuma-Mosque The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). His successor,[citation needed] Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. (. [14] The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia,[22] however, Derbent was probably already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. Naryn-Kala fortress in Derbent [1] Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. Already in Classical Antiquity, the settlement of Derbent and its wider region (the "Caspian Gates") were known for their strategic location between the Caspian Sea and the eastern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, separating the settled regions south of the Caucasus from the nomadic peoples dominating the Pontic–Caspian steppe to the north. 'Gate of Iron'). I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. Том 1",,, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? The Shirvanshahs dynasty existed as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in the Islamic world. The chief rabbi of Derbent, Obadiah Isakov, was badly injured in an assassination attempt on July 25, 2013, sparking concerns of further acts of anti-Semitism targeting the Jewish community. [14] The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr (The Gruzinian Guard): "šahrestan [ī] kūmīs [ī] panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. 564. Local authorities claim they’d warned Russia’s Culture Ministry about the condition of the Orta-Kapi gate in Derbent, the country’s second-oldest city. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. Derbent can claim to be the oldest occupied city in Russia, and it is the southernmost Russian city, lying only 50 km (31 miles) from the border with Azerbaijan. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). [25] The chronicler Movses Kaghankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." 05/05/2018 year.Tourists are photographed against the background of the city from the Naryn-Kala Wall of Naryn-Kala fortress and view of Derbent city. The bed was comfy. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. Over the centuries the city changed hands often. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia. Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. [1] In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).[1]. [24] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Дагестан. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. AC worked well. The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).[14]. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues,[39] making it fall under Persian rule again. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with … Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. There has been a fortress here since very ancient times and sections of the current structure date back to the 6th c ad. [26] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[28]. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). Крепость Нарын-кала. Дербент. Canals of St Petersburg, Russia As visitors gaze upon the canals that criss-cross through the village of St Petersburg, many are unaware that they are witnessing paths carved in the name of trade and westernization. A prison. With a history going back by five thousand years, Derbent is said to be Russia’s oldest city. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: The witness of great history - See 104 traveler reviews, 452 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. Russia. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrasa. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. [48] In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.[49]. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. [15], "-Wėrōy-pahr: "The Gruzinian Guard" The old name of the fortress at Darband;..."[16], In Arabic texts the city was known as "Bāb al-Abwāb" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْأَبْوَاب‎, lit. The length … M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. ... Derbent. At the beginning of our era, part of the present Dagestan was in Caucasian … In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. 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Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. Derbent is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea Derbent city view from above. [26] According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”,[27] relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). [40] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. Россия - panoramio (2).jpg 3,888 × 2,592; 3.45 MB. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. It is often identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. [14], The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.[23]. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. The Derbent Fortifications is one the most popular tourist attractions in the city of Derbent and the Republic of Dagestan. They were renowned for their cultural achievements and geopolitical pursuits. [14] Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from.
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